Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is the oldest routing protocol used in dynamic routing. It is used in an autonomous system and is based on distance vector routing. All routing protocols use metric for choosing the path to reach the destination device. RIP uses hop counts that is the shortest number of hop counts determines the path. It applies a limit to the number of hops allowed in the path from source to the destination network to prevent routing loops. RIP uses holddown, split horizon, and route poisoning methods to stop incorrect routing information propagating.
In modern networks, though it is not used anymore, in small networks it is still liked because of its simplicity. From an academic point of view to understand the routing process, RIP is used as a basic example. So, let us try to understand is RIP is what we need or do not.
There are two versions of RIP as mentioned below.
- RIP Version 1: It is an open standard protocol that means it is vendor neutral. It works on different vendor routers and is a classful routing protocol. Its administrative distance is 120.
- It is easy to configure.
- Less overhead means low cost for running the business.
- It performs load balancing. In case a link breaks up, it finds another path to reach the destination which reduces traffic.
- It is used in small networks because it got no complexity.
- The updates are broadcasted every 30 secs causing high bandwidth utilization.
- The limit on the number of hop counts (i.e. 15) makes scalability an issue. When the network grows and requires more routers, it would be a problem to use RIP.
- In the case of tracing an alternate path and using it, the convergence is very slow.
- Since the administrative distance is 120 which is very high, it can’t be relied upon.
- RIP Version 2: It is a classless Interdomain routing protocol and its metric is also based on hop count. RIP V2 was developed to overcome some deficiencies found in RIP V1.
- It is able to carry subnet information and supports Variable Length Subnet Mask subnetting, route summarization, and CIDR.
- It provides fast convergence.
- When there are changes in the network, it sends triggered updates.
- It is perfect for dial networks as it supports snapshot routing.
- It also supports authentication.
- Due to the limit of a maximum 15 hop count, the infinity becomes a fixed number as the network tries to grow.
- There is no concept of neighbor adjacency.
- It shares its entire routing table with all its neighbors every 30 sec except the triggered updates.
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