Network designing and planning is an iterative process which comprises of topological design, network synthesis and network realization. In other words, it refers to the planning & designing process which involves evaluating, understanding and scoping the computer network infrastructure to be implemented. There are several layers of network planning & designing such as business planning layer, Operation and maintenance layer and more.
- The network planning process begins by gaining external information which includes forecasts of how the new network or service required to operate, the economic information for cost estimation and the technical details about network’s capabilities.
- Using the above information, a baseline for network must be optimized such that it meets the business requirements and goal.
- Next, topological design blueprint must be created which involves determining the location for placing components and the cabling structure to be used for making connections. Graph theory methodologies can be used to optimize the topology of network. These methods involve determining transmission costs, switching costs and thereby determining the optimal connection environment and location of switches and concentrates.
- Network synthesis is another layer in designing networks which involves determining the size of components to be used, subjected to performance criteria. Nonlinear Optimization method must be used to determine the topology, required grade of service, cost of transmission, etc., and calculate a routing plan and the size of the components using this information metrics.
- Network realization is another stage which involves determining how to meet capacity requirements and obtain reliability within the network. Using multicommodity flow optimization methodology, all information regarding demand, costs and reliability must be determined and then calculate an actual physical circuit plan using this information metrics.
- Information from each layer of planning and designing must be used to create a detailed network diagram that will serve as blueprint for implementing the network physically.
- After the topological design of network is determined, logical map of the network must be designed. This logical map includes information about VLANs, protocols and transmission technologies to be used in the network.
- IP addressing structure must be determined, by selecting the class A, B or C depending on the number of host and subnets required. Subnetting must be performed if required depending upon the no. of departments and users per department.
- Network security architecture and overall network security processes must be defined to ensure protection of data that is transmitted over network and data stored on the devices that connect to it.
- Network readiness assessment must be performed by testing network in terms of scalability, availability, reliability, manageability and security.
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